New DNA Test

I had another DNA test done in July 2013.  Some more interesting information about our ancient heritage. I always suspected Clifford Hullinger was part Neanderthal - now we know.


My general DNA information below is of course a 50 / 50 mix of Louise Liffengren Hullinger and Clifford Hullinger, so your DNA will be somewhat different.  Still, it give someone who is a Hullinger a little insight into their DNA.  They find that my DNA is most like a Finn - who knew?  Don't tell our Norwegian relatives. Of course we can blame some of this on the Hullinger side.  And since I am part Neanderthal, you likely are also.



We are all more than the sum of our parts, but the results below offer some of the most dramatic and fascinating information in your Geno 2.0 test. In this section, we display your affiliations with a set of nine world regions. This information is determined from your entire genome so we’re able to see both parents’ information, going back six generations. Your percentages reflect both recent influences and ancient genetic patterns in your DNA due to migrations as groups from different regions mixed over thousands of years. Your ancestors also mixed with ancient, now extinct hominid cousins like Neanderthals in Europe and the Middle East or the Denisovans in Asia. If you have a very mixed background, the pattern can get complicated quickly! Use the reference population matches below to help understand your particular result.  VIEW THE "WHO AM I" VIDEO





This component of your ancestry is found at highest frequency in northern European populations—people from the UK, Denmark, Finland, Russia and Germany in our reference populations. While not limited to these groups, it is found at lower frequencies throughout the rest of Europe. This component is likely the signal of the earliest hunter-gatherer inhabitants of Europe, who were the last to make the transition to agriculture as it moved in from the Middle East during the Neolithic period around 8,000 years ago.
Note: In some cases regional percentages may not total 100%.


Modern day indigenous populations around the world carry particular blends of these regions. We compared your DNA results to the reference populations we currently have in our database and estimated which of these were most similar to you in terms of the genetic markers you carry. This doesn’t necessarily mean that you belong to these groups or are directly from these regions, but that these groups were a similar genetic match and can be used as a guide to help determine why you have a certain result. Remember, this is a mixture of both recent (past six generations) and ancient patterns established over thousands of years, so you may see surprising regional percentages. Read each of the population descriptions below to better interpret your particular result.


This reference population is based on samples collected from people native to Finland. The dominant 57% Northern European component likely reflects the earliest settlers in Europe, hunter-gatherers who arrived there more than 35,000 years ago. The 17% Mediterranean and 17% Southwest Asian percentages arrived later, with the spread of agriculture from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, over the past 10,000 years. As these early farmers moved into Europe, they spread their genetic patterns as well. Today, northern European populations retain the links to both earliest Europeans and these later migrants from the Middle East. The 7% Northeast Asian component reflects mixing with native Siberian populations, particularly the reindeer-herding Saami people of far northern Scandinavia.











  • 44%


  • 34%


  • 20%



This reference population is based on samples collected from the native population of Greece. The 54% Mediterranean and 17% Southwest Asian percentages reflect the strong influence of agriculturalists from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, who arrived here more than 8,000 years ago. The 28% Northern European component likely comes from the pre-agricultural population of Europe—the earliest settlers, who arrived more than 35,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic period. Today, this component predominates in northern European populations, while the Mediterranean component is more common in southern Europe.









  • 44%


  • 34%


  • 20%



Y Chromosome Information - passed from father to son. It is not clear how our ancestors got to Switzerland, although with more people getting the test and more research a detailed path may yet be found.




Today, the distribution and frequency of this lineage’s members echoes the origins of their ancestor. It is 10 to 11 percent of the male population of Tunisia. It is about 5 percent of modern Macedonian male lineages. It is 4 to 5 percent of the male population of Cyprus. It is 1 to 2 percent of male lineages in Switzerland. Geneticists have found this lineage at trace frequencies of less than 1 percent through most of Western and Central Europe.
Note: This branch is not accompanied by a major movement on the map, and research on this branch is continuing.

The map below shows the path and cocentrations of our male ancestors and their descendants.


Craig Hullinger recently had a DNA test done with National Geographic. The graphic above shows that I am 1.8% Neanderthal - I always suspected it. His mother Louise Liffengren Hullinger is convinced that the Neanderthal could not have come from the Liffengren side of our family - it must be from the Hullingers.

My MtDNA Haplogroup - the DNA passed from mother to child - is H13ala.  All the women descended from Barbo Tronrud and their descendants and all of their maternal ancestors share this MtDNA Haplogroup.

The H MtDNA is the dominant Haplogroup in Europe. About 1/2 of European women are of this group.

The H13ala is a subgroup of H and is far more rare. About 3% of the maternal lineages in Norway are this Haplogroup. The map below shows the path that our maternal ancestors took when leaving from Africa and migrating to Europe.


AGE: 17,500 ± 4,200 YEARS AGO


Groups containing this lineage lived in the harsh climate of the Caucasus. From there, some have migrated to Europe and West Asia.
Today, this line is present at low frequency in both Asia and Europe, but its highest population frequency and diversity is present in the Caucasus. There, it is prominent in Dagestan (15 percent) and in Georgia (13.3 percent).
In West Asia, it is over 18 percent of some population groups in Iraq and about 13 percent of the population in United Arab Emirates.
In Europe, it is 3 to 4 percent of maternal lineages in Italy, 3 percent of maternal lineages in Norway, and about 2 percent of maternal lineages in Turkey.
Note: This branch is not accompanied by a major movement on the map, and research on this branch is continuing.

Roman Empire and the Location of our J2 Y-Haplogroup


Y-DNA Haplogroup J2 M172 - Roman Empire

While it has been said before in forums, chats and websites on the internet that the J2 Frequency Map for Europe shows a resemblance to the borders of the Roman Empire, i have never seen an actual image comparing the two. I decided to make one for myself and upload it here. I used the current (2012) J2 Frequency map and an image of the Roman Empire at its largest extent (about 117 AD). tells us; "Romans surely helped spread haplogroup J2 across its borders, judging from the distribution of J2 within Europe (frequency over 5%) which bears an uncanny resemblance to the borders of the Roman Empire."
Rober H. A. Sanders

Some More interesting scoop at

Executive Summary

Executive Summary
January 12, 2013

This blog tracks the DNA Y chromosome for the Hullinger / Hollinger / Holliger / Holiger clan.  As we find new information we will add it to the blog while keeping this summary updated.

Our oldest know paternal ancestor is Henri Holiger of Boniswyl, Aargau, Switzerland, born in 1425.  We have visited this lovely area and found relatives. The community is very attractive with a small castle located at the foot of a lake. A fast flowing stream forms a moat around the castle. 

Our paternal Swiss ancestors immigrated to the United States in 1736 and settled in Pennsylvania. Their descendants gradually moved west with the frontier. Our branch of the family homesteaded in Vivian, South Dakota in the early 1900's.

We conducted genetic testing to learn about our ancient history.  Craig Hullinger was tested for the "Y" chromosome which is passed from father to son with very little change.  Clif Hullinger was tested for mtDNA, which is passed from mother to child.  The results of Clif Hullinger's test is at

Our Haplogroup is J2A4H2. This is not a widespread Haplogroup in Switzerland. It originated in the middle east.The maps below show the origination and migration path of men with the "J" Haplogroup.

"Y-DNA haplogroup J2 lineages originated in the area known as the Fertile Crescent. The main spread of J2 into the Mediterranean area is thought to have coincided with the expansion of agricultural peoples during the Neolithic period. "

"J2 is related to the Ancient Etruscans, (Minoan) Greeks, southern Anatolians, Phoenicians, Assyrians and Babylonians. In Europe, J2 reaches its highest frequency in Greece (especially in Crete, Peloponese and Thrace), southern and central Italy, southern France, and southern Spain. The ancient Greeks and Phoenicians were the main driving forces behind the spread J2 around the western and southern Mediterranean."

So our Swiss ancestor came from the middle east.   Our ancestor could have been a Roman slave or soldier.  

Other Hollinger and Hullinger's have also conducted testing. As more people conduct tests we will learn more.

The test showed that our Swiss Hullinger genealogy was accurate. Our "Y" chromosome is closely related to other Hullinger / Hollinger men who who also took the DNA test. The table below shows twelve men with the Hollinger name who took the DNA test.

Eight are closely related (My test is the one indicating Henri Holiger). Four of the eight list their ancestral country of origin as Switzerland, with two unknown and one each from Austria and Germany.  The other four men are not closely related to us and perhaps acquired their last name through adoption or in a different locale.  

It thus seems likely that our ancestor immigrated into Switzerland and then acquired our last name. Our Hollinger (Hullinger) Name, according to Genealogy Family Education.

South German and Jewish (Ashkenazic): habitational name for someone from places called Holling or Hollingen. 

The test also shows the number of Swiss matches against the total number of Swiss and European "Y" Haplogroups tested. This result is quite low - only 2 Swiss cousins out of 1,618 Swiss tested. It is also rare in the rest of northern Europe.This indicates that our J2 haplogroup is a fairly recent and rare haplogroup in northern Europe.

Other DNA tests listed later in this blog show the total number of men who tested J2A4H2.  Many of them are from the middle east.

We also found another interesting item.  There were a large number of European Jews named Hollinger who were killed in the Holocaust.  We don't know the connection. The Jewish Hollingers could have acquired their name independently of ours or they could be closely related. We will eventually find out - there are a number of Hollingers in Israel. As they get tested for their Y chromosome we will find out if we are closely related.  If so our paternal ancestor was most likely Jewish. If not then the Roman soldier or slave solution becomes more likely.

Genetic testing is relatively new. We will likely find out much more about our ancient history as more people get tested and as we learn more about genetics.

Our Paternal Line of Descent

Hullinger / Hollinger / Holliger / Holiger

Born Died First Last Name Spouse Birth Place / Comments

1425 1504 Henri Holiger Boniswyl, Aargu, SWZ

1446 Heini Holiger Boniswil (Holvil) Switzerland

1472 Hans Holiger 1504 Junghans Holiger
m Margaretha Rebmeyer

1548 1600 Heini Holiger m Barbara Mayer Boniswyl,Aargu, SWZ Burial: Seengen

1591 1643 Heini Holiger m Anna Huber
Aargu, Boniswyl, SWZ

1627 1689 Rudolph Holliger m Anna Hummel

1661 Jacob Holliger m Elisabeth Burger

1701 1779 Hans Jacob Hollinger m Anna Elisabetha Esterli
Immigrated to US 1736

1734 1802 Christian Hollinger m Eva Dorothea Feltz
Born Germany, Captain American Revolution

1757 1839 Daniel Hullinger m Ann Schockey
Lancaster Co, PA, 1st Lt American Revolution

1788 1856 Daniel Jnr Hullinger m Comfort Conway Staunton Trenton, OH

1833 1909 Daniel J Hullinger m Mary Kirk Ohio emigrated from Ohio to south central Iowa by wagon train in 1864

1870 1956 Eli Hullinger m Mary Elizabeth Siddons Leon IA

1893 1970 John Franklin Hullinger m Pearl Josephine Harlan
Leon, Iowa US Army, WW I

1920 Clifford Harlan Hullinger m Louise Liffengren
Vivian, SD 1st Lieutenant, US Army, WW II

1947 Craig Harlan Hullinger m Elizabeth S. Ruyle
Brookings, SD Colonel, US Marine Corps Reserve, Vietnam

1980 Bret Schaller Hullinger Harvey, IL

There is a lot of additional information in this blog and on the

Hollinger (Hullinger) Swiss name locations. Our ancestors were from the villages of Boniwill, Egliswil, Seengen, and Holwil in Canton Aargau, Switzerland.

Surname Canton Community Citizenship obtained Place of origin

Holliger AG Aarau 1910, 1924 (Boniswil AG)
Holliger AG Boniswil a
Holliger AG Egliswil 1880 (Boniswil AG)
Holliger AG Gontenschwil a
Holliger AG Lenzburg b
Holliger AG Oberentfelden a
Holliger AG Oberkulm 1860 (Boniswil AG)

Holliger AG Schinznach Dorf 1877 (Boniswil AG)
Holliger AG Seengen a
Holliger AG Zofingen 1895 (Beinwil am See AG)
Holliger BS Basel 1902, 1914, 1920, 1927 (Boniswil AG)
Holliger BS Basel 1933 (Oberentfelden AG)
Holliger BS Basel 1947 (Oberkulm AG)
Holliger BS Basel 1919 (Zofingen AG)

Holliger GR Chur 1922 (Seengen AG)
Holliger NE Neuchâtel 1888 (Boniswil AG)
Holliger TG Arbon 1943 *
Holliger ZH Opfikon 1948 (Boniswil AG)
Holliger ZH Volketswil 1921 (Boniswil AG)
Holliger ZH Winterthur 1919 (Boniswil AG)
Holliger ZH Zürich 1926, 1927, 1940, 1942, 1943, 1945, 1951, 1952, 1958, 1959 (Boniswil AG)
Holliger ZH Zürich 1956 (Volketswil ZH)

Legend: a = before 1800; b = in 19th century; c = in 20th century.

Name Origin

Our Hollinger (Hullinger) Name, according to Genealogy Family Education.

South German and Jewish (Ashkenazic): habitational name for someone from places called Holling or Hollingen.

I have recently been in communication with Alois Ohrhallinger in Austria.  He has done considerable research on the name, and he believes that everyone with the Hallinger / Hollinger / Hullinger name originated in Austria. He could well be right since there are signficant concentrations of Hollinger's in Austria, and our Hullinger name came from Hollinger.  His writings in the blog below.

Hullinger / Hollinger J2a4h2

The table below results from a search in for the Hollinger name, which includes Hullinger and Holiger. The first seven Hollingers are closely related. The last three are not closely related.

Persons Closely related to Our Y J2a4h2 - Our Genetic "Cousins"

The information above is from a search for persons matching our Y Haplogroup of J2a4h2.  The right column shows the genetic distance, with 0 being the closest. Ten of the respondents above indicate that their oldest male ancestor is from Europe, while four say the middle east (two Syria, two Sephardic Jews), Thirteen don't know.